Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Extreme Apathy in John Guare’s Six Degrees of Separation Essay

Extreme Apathy in John Guare’s Six Degrees of Separation Many authors go to great lengths to explore the limits of human experience, testing realms beyond the imagination. Anything from physical boundaries to social boundaries are broken and thus redefined; Kafka explores the life of a man turned into a bug, Nabokov examines the life of a man ruled by a sexual desire that is taboo. With so much effort focused on the extremes of life, one work, a play by John Guare entitled Six Degrees of Separation, stands out. Certainly, the events are extraordinary; based on a true story, Six Degrees is the tale of a young con man, professing to be the son of Sidney Poitier, and his effect on the lives of several New York socialites. Paul is the Eliza Doolittle of the modern age, adopting all the skills, stories, and styles that make him the perfect houseguest. Paul's charisma ensures that at every encounter, his presence leaves its mark. One broke and broken young man named Rick, after losing his last dime and last shred of dignity to an encounter with Paul, throws himself from his third floor tenement apartment. From the way that the New Yorkers speak of their experiences with Paul, one would think that Guare has crafted yet another story exploring the range of human experience, probing the impact and significance of encounters among friends and strangers. However, as much as some incidents, such as Rick's suicide, suggest the extreme and most violent ends of the interaction, Guare's play leads us down a too familiar path to a rather harrowing conclusion: that the most unnerving edge of human experience is not, in fact, the most extreme and violent, but the most common and natural to human nature. Guare's play is peopled with characters ... ...e to present ourselves and have some hand in our own destiny, we are paralyzed. As Paul says, the end of Waiting for Godot is "Let's go. Yes, let's. They do not move" (25). At the end of the play, Ouisa is about to go to Sotheby's, but then pauses to watch Paul in her own mind. The lights go down as she remains on stage. Ouisa is not saved, and in the end we must doubt that she will find momentum enough to collect the substance that is required to have a life. Instead of moving into a life of meaning, she will float to Sotheby's, with a drink in hand and an urbane smile. One can picture the unwritten end to follow, Ouisa at Sotheby's "We had the strangest call tonight, that imposter that came into our lives, and you know, I had such a revelation about our lives . . ." NOTES [1] John Guare, Six Degrees of Separation. New York: Dramatist's Play Service, 1992.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Hooded Americanism: The First Century of the Ku Klux Klan Essay

In â€Å"Hooded Americanism,† David M. Chalmers narrates the olden times of the Ku Klux Klan in every single one of its personifications from right away following the Civil War to the belatedly 1970s. Mr. Chalmers moreover talks about the Klan’s expansion and accomplishments in all of the states throughout its strongest era in the 1920s to 1930s. Mr. Chalmers furthermore discusses in great detail the tumultuous 1960s and how the Klan lends a hand unintentionally to produce the Civil Rights legislation for which it struggled so toughly against the opposition. Comprehensively investigated and finely written, â€Å"Hooded Americanism† is based on facts and peeps into the life of a contentious association and into the survival of the men and women who made it achievable. Summary of the Book: In the book â€Å"Hooded Americanism†, according to the author, David M. Chalmers, â€Å"it is not possible under American law to forbid the existence of an organization such as the Klan. Only the overt deeds of individuals, not organizations and opinions, are punishable† (David Mark Chalmers, 391). In other expressions it is practically not possible to pin the activities of a company on one human being. In result, the group gets away with monstrous and dreadful actions of violent behavior and no one is penalized for it. They have extended an effectual and successful approach and it is one of terrorization. All the way through the past, the Ku Klux Klan has instilled terror in others compelling them to give the impression to be substandard and defenseless. Not including the capability to threaten civilization, the Klan may perhaps still subsist, but it would obtain no authority above others. David Chalmers’ Hooded Americanism is in spite of everything, a standard history of the Ku Klux Klan. His 1981 modified version traced the indistinguishable territory all the way through its fourth period, peaking with the late-1970s resurrection directed by new leaders like David Duke and manifested by the assassinators of five anti-Klan protesters at a 1979 war of words in Greensboro, North Carolina â€Å"Greensboro† readdresses here. Greensboro, North Carolina is a municipality in the U. S. state of North Carolina. Subsequently Klan relationships previously again forced, even though hard-core Klansmen soldiered into the new millennium by setting of connections crossways the chauvinistic Right, counterfeiting associations with Christian distinctiveness supporters, armed force combatants Nordic paganists, and neo-Nazi demagogues. Thesis of the book:  In spite of the civil rights modifications being approved greater than 40 years ago, racial discrimination persists to continue living to a great extent in America. A good example of this is the book â€Å"Hooded Americanism†. This book is based on the southern-based group known as the Ku Klux Klan. Instantaneously subsequent to the Civil War, this group moved towards the Modernization Period. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is one of America’s oldest and mainly one of the most apprehended groups. Determined by the vision of a world with simply one master ethnic group, the KKK frequently makes use of violent behavior, aggression and tactics exceeding the law to encourage their cause: white domination. Believe it or not, the innovative components intended for the KKK, were supposed to be an entertaining communal association that would be occupied of meaningless excitement and enjoyment despite the fact that in later years the KKK grew to be identified for their violent behavior and brutality in opposition to inhabitants outside the white nation and public who connected with them. With the times gone by that image Americans have of the KKK is hard to accept as true that it was on track for the reason that a small number of inhabitants wanting to have some childlike enjoyment, not because they were determined to establish a procession of hostility on anybody outside the white ethnic group. The Klan was extremely mysterious; all of the components were protected from individuals meaningful in their real characteristics (if that was their desire). Because of this confidentiality they obtained the alternate substitute name of â€Å"The Invisible Empire†. Even though slavery was brought to a conclusion, racial discrimination was not. The KKK was decived by the U. S. Government when it established and started being familiar with African-Americans as more than simply slaves. The KKK started their remonstration by execution, tar and feathering, thrashing, pounding and assassinating African-Americans in the South. The Klan doesn’t make use of the similar strategies as they did years and years ago. At that instant the KKK grasps nonviolent complaints in front of civil rights organization structures, the White House, and so on. For the reason that of their further diplomatic and more knowledgeable sounding loom, the Klan gets further encouraging awareness from brainless southerners. Subsequent to the removal of the U. S. Government hordes from the South in the late 1800’s, the Klan accomplished its objective. Numerous of the groups separated. Following the turn of the century, it started happening another time. This instant the objective was a lot superior, emancipation of America from all non-white, Christian Americans. This is the Ku Klux Klan we are familiar with at the moment. The Klan hasn’t been as authoritative from the time when they began, but for the past 50 years it has had a lot of reincarnation and plunges. All the way through the history, the KKK has tried to put a stop to the correspondence of America. They will maintain to do well by pleading with further inexperienced and unqualified Americans to stick together with them. It is correct that racial discrimination still continues to exist in the United States, but there will at all times be men and women of every color and shade struggling in opposition to group similar to the KKK. Provided that there are dissimilarities linking people on this earth, there will forever be revulsion. And the KKK will be there to nourish on this abhorrence and take advantage of it in each and every way probable. They might be noiseless for numerous years, but you can calculate on the reality that they are there. They are â€Å"The Invisible Empire† and will for eternity be the dark and mysterious side to American History. The book goes in length into the Klan’s spreading out into numerous nations and documents their accomplishments/collapses and the universal communal response of the group of people the Klan was entering. The novelist despite the fact that appeared to have a pro-Klan prejudice, and this is sensed just by the title and the understanding of the within jacket. He infrequently spots out the tribulations of the Klan’s philosophy (throughout his utilization of expressions, particularly exclusion of such words as â€Å"racist† and â€Å"bigot†, which a lot of Klan associates gave the impression to symbolize), and glamorizes the Klan’s analyses on white preeminence as a standard, contemporary inspection of white Christians (a little exceptionally distant from the reality). It glamorizes Klan violent behavior and intimidation of aggression, and in more than a small number of places it blames those adjacent to the Klan as unpatriotic Americans, or unappreciative colonizers or minorities. Mr. Chalmers furthermore highlights community brutality not in favor of Klan action as the actual erroneous and wickedness, something I believe is a usual response to these ‘pseudo-Christian revolutionary law enforcers’ who wish for time (and America) to stand still and static for them. A number of areas furthermore intimate towards the writer’s support for the Klan’s principles. The foremost Klan was established in 1865 by veterans of the co-conspirator defense force. Its rationale was to reinstate white incomparability in the consequences of the American Civil War. The Klan opposed Reconstruction by threatening â€Å"carpetbaggers†, â€Å"troublemakers† and freedmen. The KKK promptly accepted aggressive techniques. The increase in assassinations finally resulted in a counterattack between Southern leaders who observed the Klan’s immoderation as an explanation for centralized troops to prolong occupation. The association refused from 1868 to 1870 and was shattered by President Ulysses S. Grant’s route and enforcement of the Civil Rights Act of 1871. In 1915, the following Klan was established. It developed quickly in a different period of postwar social apprehensions. After World War I, a lot of Americans managed with successful development rates in main metropolis, where plentiful influence of refugees from southern and Eastern Europe and the Great Migration of Southern blacks and whites were being captivated. Subsequent to World War I, labor anxiety increased as veterans attempted to reenter the work energy. In response to these new groups of migrants and refugees, the second KKK urged racial discrimination, anti-Catholicism, anti-Communism, nativism, and anti-Semitism. Conclusion: Mr. Chalmers creates exceptional use of modern newspaper descriptions and perspectives to cover the Klan and its reputation in a specified group of people. What I found particularly fascinating was the Klan’s demographics. Mr. Chalmers acquaints with investigation that disproves long-held confidences that the Klan was for all time strongest in the South; in actual fact the Klan, at times, lined the authorized administrations of the Midwest. Mr. Chalmers furthermore talks about how different state governments and councils struggled with the Klan or sided with them. Yet again, I was astonished at how numerous administrations in reality attempted to restrain the enlargement of the Klan in their states throughout anti-mask commandments and other legislation. Mr. Chalmers has printed an outstanding history that includes in huge detail the 100 years subsequent to the Civil War. I look forward to that he is at an effort on modernizing this essential work.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Opposite of Loneliness Essay

In the article â€Å"Opposite of loneliness† by Marina Keegan, it explains about the life of a young adult who started her adulthood in Yale University. A place she had found happiness and most certainly the opposite of loneliness. Moreover, she finds herself completely attached to it as she had said in the first paragraph â€Å"What I’m grateful and thankful to have found at Yale and what I’m scared of losing when we wake up tomorrow and leave this place†. This phrase shows us that Yale brought out the best in her, something she fears losing and that she is actually very reluctant to have to leave. She is afraid that all her memories and experiences she has gone through would be gone once she steps out of Yale. This article shows the basic development of a young adult’s social life beginning with a simple circle of friends or a clique and the attachment that became stronger as one grow fonder of the people around her which is exactly what she faces in her experience in Yale where it was mentioned in paragraph three, â€Å"Yale is full of tiny circle we pull around ourselves†. She found that even though not everyone knows everyone, there is still unity and a sense of togetherness among the students in Yale. She also added that the experienced they shared among themselves were priceless and unforgettable and that she felt safe and loved whenever in the company of her peers during her time in Yale. This article allows us to see that the writer begins to discover herself and learns to comprehend about life as she faces challenges along the way while being in Yale. The fear of knowing the truth or fear of not knowing at all is something every individual learns to adapt to however the word â€Å"fear† should never conquer a person as it would only demotivate ourselves instead f seeing the positive side of life just as she had mentioned in paragraph 4 â€Å"But let us get one thing straight: the best years of our lives are not behind us. They’re apart of us† The writer starts comparing the her past and the possible future where she wished that she could wind back time and correct her past mistakes and regrets if given the chance to. It makes us realize that in life there will be scenes playing in our minds like a 1980’s classical film in which the â€Å"What if† takes place. There are times that every individual wished they could go back in time and do something good for themselves or be a the chairperson of a certain society, things they never knew they had it in them or things they went through and it never crossed their mind that they actually did it which is exactly what she felt in herself, â€Å"I’ve looked back on my high school and thought: how did I do that? How did I work so hard? † Everybody would have their standards of living and expectations of succeeding however the article also makes us realize that no matter how perfectly we plan, we may not have the ending that we wished for. We can never be certain of what the future holds for us, however as life goes on, we understand that a human being tends to regret her decisions and change their minds ample of times which explains what she had mentioned in paragraph nine â€Å"If only I had majored in biology, if only I’d gotten involved in journalism as a freshman† The writer also shared uncertainties for what the future would hold for her. She starts comparing herself to others who have accomplished more than she has. Life is all about choices and it is these choices that she is most afraid of. The writer also stated that during her time in Yale, she never had to make any life changing choices and knows she has to start doing it once she graduated and is afraid to make the wrong choices. However, she added that however our lives turned out to be, the future is uncertain and that it can be altered at any point of our life. This can be seen when she said â€Å"What we have to remember is that we can still do anything. We can change our minds. We can start over†. At a young age especially an undergraduate student would always feel that there’s always something missing in their lives to what they’ve accomplished. However also at a young age the opportunity that lies ahead in the future is even bigger. For each expect the young adult faces in Yale University, she comes across one conclusion of her college life, loneliness was never involved however happiness, laughter and memories are definitely words to describe it. Stages by stages this article makes us understand that we as human beings should cherish each and every moment that we have and make the best out of it. Sustain it as a memory that becomes apart of you until the very end. Yes life is not a bed of roses however there’s no harm in trying to make it an enjoyable experience and ride.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Racism in Disney Movies

Anastasia Trus WRTG 3020 Professor Pat Sullivan 30 March 2010 Racism in Disney During the last several decades, the media has become a strong agent in directing and controlling social beliefs and behaviors. Children, by nature, can be particularly susceptible to the influencing powers of the media, opening an avenue where media created especially for children can indoctrinate entire generations. Disney movies, like all other media â€Å"are powerful vehicles for certain notions about our culture,† such as racism. Giroux 32). Racist scenes in Disney movies are often identified as simply being â€Å"symbols of the time† when the films were produced. Furthermore, Disney racism is often passed over as simple humor, or as a simple guide to children's understanding of cultures. These explanations of racism in the films are incomplete because they fail to take into account the fact that the primary audience members of Disney films are not old enough to see the movies as relics of a different time and place. This is not to say that Disney films indoctrinate children with racist tendencies; nevertheless, racist scenes in still-popular films cast a blanket of insensitivity over the subject of racism. Disney’s reputation of being racially insensitive has never been more evident than in the time leading up to the release of its latest movie Princess and the Frog. Nearly everything about this film has caused a storm of criticism both from the public and from people within the film industry itself. It is curious that people are so enraged and concerned with this movie, when they ignore potentially more offensive racist elements in other films. If one analyzes society’s response to Princess and the Frog as a single phenomenon, then it does seem a bit odd that a children’s film could start such a heated social debate; however, after taking into account Disney’s history with racism and racial insensitivity, it is not surprising at all that the first black Disney princess would be such a controversial figure. Bombarded with accusations of anti-Semitism and racism, in the 1940’s Walt Disney was an avid supporter of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, a â€Å"red-scare† anti-Semitic industry group that wanted to blacklist artists (Alan 12). Perhaps this is one of the reasons Disney’s past is filled with questionable cinematic material. Fantasia was released in 1940, the third theatrical full-length animation, as shown in Disney's canon of animated films. The original version of Disney's classic â€Å"Fantasia† (1940) features a character called Sunflower, a little black centaur handmaiden. Sunflower is an extremely insulting caricature, and a bluntly racist stereotype of the â€Å"servile grinning nigger† variety (Walker 22). In a featured scene during â€Å"The Pastoral Symphony† elegant white centaurs frolick through the woods and are waited on by Sunflower. She is noticeably smaller than the other centaurs—ostensibly because she is half-donkey instead of half-horse, but more likely to exaggerate her inferiority—and has a darker complexion. Her sole function in the film is to eagerly polish and shine the hooves of the tall, sexy Aryan centaur women who glare down their petite noses at this pathetic servant. Such scenes were later censored in the film due to the characters being considered â€Å"ethnically offensive during the civil rights movement† (Walker 26).? In addition to reinforcing the stereotype of blacks as inferior beings, the scene from the â€Å"Pastoral Symphony† also furthers racism by supporting segregation. Throughout the film the female Aryan centaurs pair up with the males of their â€Å"race,† leaving Sunflower alone and separated from the group. Rather than correcting the racism within the scene, Disney later chose to eliminate it from the film – as if it never happened. When the racial climate of America changed in the 60s, the portrayal of such insulting stereotypes in movies and television became politically incorrect, and Disney (fearing accusations of racism) deleted Sunflower from Fantasia for the theatrical re-release of the film. Her troubling presence was simply cropped out of the movie even though you can still see the Aryans she used to pamper. Eliminating Sunflower from the movie may have been intended as harmless and as an attempt to be politically correct; however, it is cinematic decisions such as this that contributed to Disney’s reputation of being insensitive to issues of race. It was insulting enough for Disney to include the smiling servant stereotype to begin with, but to make matters worse, they started denying Sunflower's existence with the Fantasia re-release in 1960. How does that possibly make things better? A few angered African American communities said, â€Å"No, you misunderstand. In our perfect, Fantasia world, Africans aren't servants. They don't fucking exist† (Weinman 64). A contemporary film critic said, â€Å"What's fun though is that Disney says they never had such a character! We're all delusional† (Brunette 123). Maybe it was â€Å"acceptable† in the past to portray characters that had such blatant racist features; nevertheless, it is strange to deny its existence to audiences who had already seen the original version. This is how we deal with our ugly past: we deny it, trivialize it, gloss over it with pretty distractions and wishful thinking. Doing so, we deny ourselves a glimpse of the compelling reality of naked history. The well-meaning rush to unmake evil deeds by hiding them from the critical eye of modern sensibilities does nothing to honor the people who lived and struggled in those different times (Walker 28). Sunflower’s existence may be news to younger generations of Disney fans, but she has been here all along, and her presence as well as her absence carry great significance, especially in the context of how viewers and critics respond to other potentially racist films. Dumbo, the fourth film in the Disney industry, was made in 1941 and produced by Walt Disney himself. It was originally designed as an economical feature to help generate income after the financial failure of Fantasia. The concerns people had against Disney being anti-Semitic and racist were sill strong, especially after Disney projected his own sense of alienation onto â€Å"others† in Hollywood, namely, Jews, blacks, and union workers. In retaliation against the studio entrepreneurs, who were predominantly Jewish, Disney refused to employ Jews in high-level positions at his studio or as actors in his live-action features. Not until 1969, two years after Disney's death, did a Jewish actor, Buddy Hackett, feature prominently in a Disney film, The Love Bug. Disney Studios also denied black workers even minimal opportunities, as technicians and support personnel. Because Walt Disney was an infamous racist, even for his time, it is not surprising that a film he produced himself would be racist as well. Dumbo is full of racist images and themes. Dumbo’s birth itself speaks to the foundations of racism when the other female elephants single Dumbo out because he looks different with his unusual ears. Considering the fact that â€Å"big-eared elephants are African,† it is especially racist that Dumbo, who is seen as different and even freakish would be associated with Africa (Lugo-Lugo 167). Because Dumbo is different from everyone else, he is ridiculed for it. Just because his ears are bigger than those of a normal elephant, he is ostracized from the rest of the group. He only has one friend (Timothy Mouse), who ironically is also socially shunned because elephants are generally supposed to be scared of mice. This could be seen as another form of racism where someone is ostracized because they are different. Furthermore, in the movie, when it is time to set up the circus in town, it is significant to take note of who performs the hard labor necessary to make the circus function. Not only are the circus animals themselves condemned to build their own chamber of humiliation, but there are also faceless black men working hard at this labor. The faces on these men are featureless, with no eyes, no mouths, and no noses – showing that they possess no individual identities, like a group of invisible men. This is characteristic of the time period because the 1940s were right before the Civil Rights Movement, and although slavery had been abolished, blacks were still segregated and considered as lesser people. The song they sing while working is very appalling: We work all day, we work all night We never learned to read or writeWe're happy-hearted roustabouts When other folks have gone to bed We slave until we're almost dead We're happy-hearted roustabouts We don't know when we get our payAnd when we do, we throw our pay away We get our pay when children say With happy hearts, It's circus day today. The lyrics of this song portray slaves working day and night doing backbreaking labor. However, it says nothing about the system doing something wrong because the slaves seem happy to do the work. The song even mentions that slaves are also satisfied with working for no pay. The lyrics suggest that money was not something they worry about. The lyrics are insulting to the workers, stating that they do not know when they will get paid, but it does not matter because once they do get paid they will just throw their money away. Furthermore, the lyrics construct and laud the image of the passive and content slave whose true payment and fulfillment is watching the joy of (white) children on circus day. Lyrics such as â€Å"we slave until we're almost dead† but, â€Å"we're happy-hearted† are utterly absurd and disgraceful. Slavery was a morally wrong institution and the fact that Disney condoned its practices in Dumbo is horrifying. Another overtly racist element in Dumbo is the characterization and function of the crows. Richard Schickel says, â€Å"There was one distasteful moment in the film. The crows who teach Dumbo to fly are too obviously Negro caricatures† (Shickel 113). Leonardo Maltint, after quoting Schickel, says that critics may be overreacting to the crows: â€Å"There has been considerable controversy over the Black Crow sequence in recent years, most of it unjustified. The crows are undeniably black, but they are black characters, not black stereotypes† (Maltin 56). Even though Maltint makes a valid point, he does not address the fact that the crows in the film are very specifically depicted as poor and uneducated. They also use slang words such as calling each other â€Å"brotha† and speak in southern accents with incorrect grammar. Any one of these characteristics could be ignored as having racial implications; however, by combining them into one character, it is very reasonable, indeed, almost necessary to interpret the crow as a black stereotype. The other big argument for the Black Crow sequence being interpreted as racist is that the leader of the group of crows, towards the end of the movie, is named Jim. Therefore, Jim the Crow can very well be construed as being a reference to the Jim Crow Laws, which were prevalent in the southern United States from 1876-1965 and promoted racism and racial segregation. The crows' racial identities as black are further implied when they perform their song in a jazz style complete with scat stylization. The song â€Å"When I  See an Elephant Fly† is part of the music style generally popular at the time in black communities. As the crows begin humiliating poor Dumbo, Timothy Mouse steps up to defend him with the following comments: â€Å"Suppose you was torn away from your mother when you was just a baby. Nobody to tuck you in at nights. No warm, soft, caressing trunk to snuzzle into. How would you like to be left out alone†¦ in a cold, cruel, heartless world? † What an ironic comment to make to a set of characters who represent African-Americans, who, at the time, would only have been a few generations removed from the time when black slaves were routinely torn away from their families. The mouse continues: â€Å"And why? I ask ya, why? Just because he's got those big ears, they call him a freak. † Finally, Timothy says, â€Å"And on top of that, they made him a clown! Interestingly, Timothy’s reference to the clown points to the time when the white power structure practiced minstrelsy by making clowns of the socially despised blacks. It is important to recognize that Dumbo is racist not because of any single scene or image, but because of the message produced when all the racist scenes and images are combined. Dumbo is a freak with big â€Å"African† ears who must be segregated from the others. Furthermore, the only role he can have in the circus is that of the clown. The crows also point to black stereotypes through color, dialogue, and even name. Finally, the blatant reference to slavery through the figures of the circus workers contributes to an overall feeling of racism in the film. In many ways, analyzing whether one scene is racist is not nearly as important as understanding that racist undertones are present and noticeable in Dumbo whether we as a society want them be or not. It is important to note that not all racism in Disney films is directed at African Americans. One of the most well recognized racist symbols perpetuated by Disney is the portrayal of the Siamese cats in Lady and the Tramp (1955). Like stereotypical Asians, they are buck-toothed and have slanted eyes, and speak in ridiculously exaggerated accents that bear little, if any, resemblance to actual Thai speech patterns. Their features, along with the banging of a gong at the beginning of their song, could not make the Asian-specific racism any more obvious, â€Å"We are Siamese, if you please. We are Siamese if you don't please! We are former residents of Siam. There are no finer cats than we am. † Goldmark comments: One can hear the confidence and superiority in their voices. Those two cats don't care about anyone but themselves, lacking any kind of empathy. They are sociopaths, prepared to ruin Lady's life because it is fun and it serves them. They are portrayed as cunning and manipulative, giving the widespread idea that all Asians act superior, are cunning and manipulative. (Goldmark 115) In the film, the Siamese cats function not only as a racial stereotype but also as a stereotype of the upper classes in Oriental countries: â€Å"The cats prance around arrogantly in a Hollywood-invented style that is supposed to represent what the audience should assume are mannerisms of aristocratic Siamese or Chinese† (Romalov 46). The ambiguity in the exact ethnicity of the cats is significant because it demonstrates how Disney films tend to combine different ethnicities under the umbrella of one: â€Å"(Disney’s films, like many Hollywood films, often tended to lump ethnic groups together into a kind of undifferentiated mass-Asians, Chinese, Japanese, Siamese, for example Arab and East Indians as another example. ) The cats even roundly sing of their supposed heritage† (Romalov 46). This practice of ethnic â€Å"lumping† is even more obscene in Aladdin where Arabic and Indian cultures are intertwined and assumed to be one and the same. Like Lady and the Tramp, Aladdin attempted to include other races in the film that had not been included in other Disney movies of the past; unfortunately, we see many of the same racist undertones in Aladdin that are present in the film’s predecessors. Perhaps the most controversial and racist part in Aladdin (1992) is a set of lines in the opening song, â€Å"Arabian Nights. † It is one of the most contentious messages found in the film and begins the movie’s â€Å"depiction of Arab culture with a decidedly racist tone† (Giroux 104). An Arab merchant sings the lyrics: â€Å"Oh I come from a land/From a faraway place/Where the caravan camels roam. Where they cut off your ears/If they don’t like your face. /It’s barbaric, but hey, its home. † The message that is given right at the beginning of the film is that the Middle East is a desolate wasteland where the justice system runs on a simple limb-removal policy. The opening song alone s ets a tone that alienates the Arabic community from Western culture: â€Å"One would have to be very naive to believe that Hollywood would dare to use such a song if it did not see Arabs as belonging to an `other' or `alien' culture. Successive themes drive home the view that these creatures are suspicious, lazy, unethical, and violent outsiders. They' most definitely are not like ‘us’†(Shaheen 50). The lyrics to the opening song in Aladdin caused an uproar in Arab countries and the words were later changed to: â€Å"Where it’s flat and immense/ And the heat is intense. † Not only are the lyrics violent, but they are truly an example of the worst kind of racism. Disney distribution president Dick Cook was quoted as saying the change was made after meetings with members of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination League but that â€Å"it was something we did because we wanted to do it [†¦] In no way would we ever do anything [†¦] insensitive to anyone,† he said (Shaheem 52). Yousef Salem, a former spokesperson for the South Bay Islamic Association, characterizes the film in the following way: â€Å"All of the bad guys have beards and large, bulbous noses, sinister eyes and heavy accents, and they're wielding swords constantly. Aladdin doesn't have a big nose, he has a small nose. He doesn't have a beard or turban. He doesn't have an accent† (Shaheen 56). This portrayal of Arab characters gives people a negative perception of Arabs. Furthermore, the Arab characters are mean whereas those who speak clear English and appear to be Americanized are â€Å"socially accepted†, or the â€Å"heroes† of society. In the first few scenes of the movie we see an Arab merchant, with a thick accent, wearing a turban and who is trying to sell stereotypical middle-eastern products (a vase which contains â€Å"a combination of hookah and coffee maker,† which can also produce â€Å"a million fries†). In addition, the movie shows Jasmine almost loosing her hand for giving a poor little boy an apple from the market stand. That is not accurate for most Middle Easterners who strive to help the poor and the homeless – they would not attempt to cut someone’s hand off for giving an apple to a poor child. These instances show the racist way in which people from the East are portrayed as barbaric. The film could also be considered racist in that it portrays Arab culture as deeply oppressive of women and brutally violent. Princess Jasmine is trapped mercilessly inside her palace home, and the palace guards threaten to cut off her hand at one point in the film. She is also constantly controlled by the men who surround her. Finally, she is the only other woman we see in the film besides the belly dancers in the opening scenes. What does that say in regard to the significance of women in Disney? Of course, Disney does not intend to offend anyone – that would be bad business. Most people who watch the movies are probably caught up in the Disney magic and do not notice these things. Problematically, one way in which Disney creates the magic is by using stereotypes that people respond to without thinking. Aladdin looks â€Å"right† for a hero; Jafar looks â€Å"right† for a villain; Jasmine looks â€Å"right† for a trapped princess. We as consumers do not think about it, but the practices and images we internalize as being â€Å"right† are very dangerous for society. For example, it is especially concerning that the upper class in the film, the royal family, appears white. The Sultan, Jasmine, and Aladdin are all fair-skinned and do not speak with accents, suggesting that they are more â€Å"white† than the other characters in the film. This image perpetuates the white power structure in America, and most viewers are only aware of this on a subconscious level (Shaheem 54). This subconscious awareness of practices such as racism in the media is especially hazardous for our society because if an individual is not perceptive of when she internalizes social evils, than she cannot be perceptive of when she perpetuates them. Even still, the fact remains that regardless of whether we think about it, recognize or denounce it, racism and stereotyping takes place in many Disney films, including the classic 1994 film The Lion King. The first and perhaps most noticeable example of racism in The Lion King mirrors a stereotyping practice seen in Aladdin. Like Jaffar in Aladdin, Scar is arguably one of the darkest colored characters in The Lion King. While the other heroic lions are lighter skinned, Scar is the only one with dark fur and a jet-black mane, reinforcing the stereotype where the darker and more ethnic character is the villain (Twomey 1). Another obvious example of racism in Aladdin, is seen with the hyenas, who are portrayed as stupid and violent, and are comprised of a lower-class animal group that feeds upon the scraps and leftovers of the more dominant, strong, intelligent creatures. This dichotomy is then reinforced by the use of stereotypes, classifying these stupid, low-class hyenas through the use of African-American (Whoopi Goldberg as â€Å"Shenzi†) and Latino (Cheech Marin as â€Å"Banzai†) stereotypes. It has even been said that â€Å"despicable hyena storm troopers speak†¦ in racially coded accents that take on the nuances of the discourse of a decidedly urban, black, and Latino youth† (Byrne 62). The speech patterns and accents of the hyenas present quite a stark contrast compared to the American and British accents of the rest of the cast. The hyenas also serve as an interesting opposition to the thoughtful, strong, and intelligent characters of the rest of the film, who represent the upper class, indeed, mostly â€Å"white† culture. That is not to say all African-Americans are poorly depicted. James Earl Jones voices the role of the powerful and wise â€Å"Mufasa†, and Robert Guillaume voices â€Å"Rafiki,† the wise shaman. Yet even with two of the strongest main characters being voiced by African-Americans, it is hard not to notice the stereotyping Disney seems to be making about Black, Latino, and lower-class culture. It is significant to recognize that The Lion King does not stop with racial stereotypes, but also cruelly targets other underrepresented groups including women and homosexuals. According to the Associated Press, Carolyn Newberger of Harvard University complained in the Boston Globe that â€Å"the good-for-nothing hyenas are urban blacks; the arch-villain's gestures are effeminate, and he speaks in supposed gay cliches† (Twomey 33). The film also furthers gender stereotypes by displaying women as subservient and dependent upon the strength of males. The strong-spirited Nala can be viewed as a counter to this, but just as with the racial stereotyping, one strong female character does not undo the overall statement being made about the weakness of women. It is the combination of Disney’s insensitive treatment of stereotypes targeting not only non-whites, but also women, and other minorities in films such as Aladdin and The Lion King that can help explain the 21st century’s response to The Princess and the Frog. Both before and after The Princess and the Frog was released, many of the film’s critics were very vocal about racism in the movie. Nearly everyone who has an opinion about the film has something different to say – in sum, nearly everything about the film is racist and offensive to someone and needs to be changed. As a starting point in analyzing the public’s critical response to Princess and the Frog, it is important to address all the criticism surrounding the black princess’s name. Many argue that the princess’s original name, Maddy, is to close to he slave term â€Å"mammy†: â€Å"A voice actor’s tongue wouldn’t have to slip very much to say â€Å"mammy† while ordering Maddy to do a chore, and in such a context, the name â€Å"Maddy† seemed both deliberately inappropriately evocative and easy for the audience to mishear† (Kareem 1). Furthermore, others argue that Maddy’s position as chambermaid fo r a spoiled, white girl is demeaning. Just as Disney changed the name of its protagonist to â€Å"Tiana,† they have also changed her from being a maid to being a prospective owner of a restaurant. True it is traditional for fairy tale protagonists to begin their stories with having a low social status, but a black heroine who is a domestic could be legitimately read not as a fairy tale trope but as a reinforcement of real world racial denigration (Kareem 1). Some may claim that it would be historically accurate for a 1920’s black woman to be a maid, but Disney does not even necessarily care about historical accuracy when animating actual history. Another point of heated debate in the film centers on the fact that the black princess ends up with an arguably whiter prince, Naveen (or at least a prince who looks white and is voiced by a Brazilian actor who also looks white). Whatever Naveen's ethnicity is, in her article â€Å"The Word on the â€Å"Princess and the Frog,† Disney’s First Film With a Black Heroine,† Nandra Careem quotes Shannon Prince who raises some interesting points about the problems behind Disney’s choice not to make him African American: Some might argue that portraying interracial marriage in film is good – but why then weren't any of the white princesses given non-white princes to save them from white villains? And since Disney doesn't give white princesses non-white princes, isn't this interracial relationship at the expense of black boys who deserve a hero just as much as black girls deserve a heroine? (Kareem, 1) Prince is not the only critic to take issue with the difference in skin color between the prince and princess. Cultural critic Hensley Jameson comments, â€Å"The prince is lighter than she is. What’s that say about black men? Sure, Boris Kodjoe is fine, and we come in all shades, but to be truly black, a character can’t be any lighter than Denzel Washington (Kareem 1). Originally the prince was explicitly reported as being the jazz-loving monarch of a European country. By giving the prince an olive, but still white, complexion and a Brazilian accent, Disney gets to go forward with their original white hero yet make him ambiguous enough to not be unequivocally criticized as white at the same time. Tiana isn't the problem,† says Angela Bonner Helm at Black Voices: â€Å"Was there any particular reason why her love interest, Prince Naveen of Maldonia, couldn't be black, too? Though America has a â€Å"real-life black man in the highest office of the land with a black wife, Disney obviously doesn't think a black man is worth the title of prince† (Kareem 1). The plot of The Princess and the Frog also follows Disney’s pattern of making their ev il characters more â€Å"ethnic† and darker than their good characters. The central villain in the film is the voodoo master, who is also African American. Elaborating on the presence of voodoo in the film, Careem comments that Disney grossly misrepresented the purpose and reality of voodoo: â€Å"The foundation of voodoo is not charms but monotheistic faith, belief in saints and spirits, and a focus on moral values such as charity and respect for the elderly. People do perform rites for protection and defense, but suffice it to say that voodoo is not about being a magician or a fairy godmother† (Mathews 1). The fact that Disney uses uninformed voodoo stereotypes rather than accurate facts in the film furthers the racist undertones in the film. The final major point of criticism in the film is concerned with the fact that the first black Disney princess spends most of the time in the movie as a frog: â€Å"Why does the black princess have to be a frog the whole time? Are they saying black people should be green instead of black? † wonders Shirley Wilson, a waitress at Rob’s diner who plans to boycott the movie: â€Å"when I watched the film I felt disappointed to learn that the heroine spends a significant chunk of the movie not as a black princess at all but as a frog. After decades of waiting, would it be too much to actually see an hour and a half of a black princess on the screen? † (Matthews 1). Wilson’s response to The Princess and the Frog is especially significant because it demonstrates how many people, even on a non-academic level have serious concerns about issues of race in the film. When addressing the critical response to The Princess and the Frog, it is difficult to ignore the fact that even though it has been over half of a century since the first Disney films were released, racism is still a point of criticism, both in the older films and in the ones being produced today. Furthermore, despite the fact that The Princess and the Frog features the first black Disney Princess, critics are even more upset about racism in the film than they ever were before – even in the case of more overtly racist films. Many of the points raised about racism and racial stereotypes in the film are valid and interesting; nevertheless, one cannot help but notice that they overshadow many of the advances Disney has made in eliminating other equally offensive stereotypes in their films. For example, whereas other Disney films typically lack the mother figure completely and perhaps only reference the mother when explaining the past, The Princess and the Frog includes a mother who is present for the entire film. It may not be obvious to most viewers of The Princess and the Frog, but Disney takes a huge and important step in introducing a mother figure to their film – their past practice of eliminating the mother figure is arguably sexist and offensive to the female identity. Another important change Disney makes in Princess and the Frog centers on the fact that unlike other Disney princesses who dream about meeting a prince, Tiana has realistic dreams and expectations – she wants to be a restaurant owner and works very diligently to achieve her goal. Despite this significant statement about female power, however, most film critics will probably instead choose to focus on the fact that Tiana, as an African American, is limited to owning a restaurant rather than a Fortune 500 company. Works Cited: Alan, Spector J. Cultural Diversity and the US Media. Albany: State Univ. of New York, 1998. Print. Brunette, Libby. Stereotypes and Racism in Children's movies. London: Harper Collins Publishers, 2002 Byrne, Eleanor, and Martin McQuillan. Deconstructing Disney. London: Pluto, 1999. Print. Giroux, Henry A. â€Å"Are Disney Movies Good for Your Kids? † Rethinking Childhood 10. 2 (2000): 32-115. Print. Goldmark, Daniel. â€Å"Locating America: Revisiting Disney’s Lady and the Tramp. † Social Identities 14 (2008): 101-120. Print. Kareem, Nadra. â€Å"Nadra's Race Relations Blog. Rev. of Race Relations. Web Log post. About. com. 23 Nov. 2009. Web. 10 Mar. 2010. . Look Out New World, Here We Come? Race, Racialization, and Sexuality in Four Children's Animated Films by Disney, Pixar, and DreamWorks. † Print. Lugo-Lugo, Carmen, and Mary Bloodsworth-Lugo. â€Å"Look Out New World, Here We Come? Race, Racialization, and Sexuality in Four Children's Animated Films by Disney, Pixar, and DreamWorks. † Cultural Studies Critical Methodologies 9. 2 (2009): 166-78. Academic Search Premier. Web. 13 Mar. 2010. Maltin, Leonard. The Disney Films. New York: Disney Editions, 2000. Print. Matthews, Bill. â€Å"Disney's Black Princess Is the Most Racist Thing Ever. † The Peoples News. ThePeoplesNews, 2 June 2009. Web. 20 Mar. 2010. . Robin, Allan. â€Å"European Influences on Early Disney Feature Films. † A Reader in Animation Studies 25. 3 (1997): 42-46. Print. Romalov, Nancy. â€Å"Lady and the Tramps: The Cultural Work of Gypsies in Nancy Drew and Her Foremothers. † The Lion and the Unicorn 18. 1 (1994). Http://muse. jhu. edu/journals. 1 June 1994. Web. 11 Mar. 2010. Schickel, Richard. The Disney Version; the Life, Times, Art, and Commerce of Walt Disney. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968. Print. Shaheen, Jack. â€Å"Aladdin Animated Racism. † Cineaste 20. 1 (1994): 49-52. Print. Twomey, Steve. â€Å"†The Lion King† a Roaring Success Despite Lambasting. † Washington Post 28 July 1994, 46th ed. , sec. B: 4-7. Print. Walker, Janet. â€Å"Disney's Policy? No Black People, Please. † Academic Search Premier. 23 July 1994. Web. 12 Mar. 2010. Weinman, Jamie. â€Å"Zip-a-dee-dee-doo-don't Mention It. † Maclean's 120. 18 (2007): 63-64. Print.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Gastritis and Its Consequence

Gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach, and has many possible causes. [1]The main acute causes are excessive alcohol consumption or prolonged use ofnonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (also known as NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Sometimes gastritis develops after major surgery, traumatic injury, burns, or severe infections. Gastritis may also occur in those who have had weight loss surgery resulting in the banding or reconstruction of the digestive tract. Chronic causes are infection with bacteria, primarily Helicobacter pylori, chronic bile reflux, and stress; certain autoimmune disorders can cause gastritis as well. The most common symptom is abdominal upset or pain. Other symptoms are indigestion, abdominal bloating, nausea, and vomiting andpernicious anemia. Some may have a feeling of fullness or burning in the upper abdomen. A gastroscopy, blood test, complete blood count test, or a stool test may be used to diagnose gastritis. Treatment includes taking antacids or other medicines, such as proton pump inhibitors or antibiotics, and avoiding hot or spicy foods. For those with pernicious anemia, B12 injections are given, but more often oral B12 supplements are recommended. Many people with gastritis experience no symptoms at all. However, upper central abdominal pain is the most common symptom; the pain may be dull, vague, burning, aching, gnawing, sore, or sharp. Pain is usually located in the upper central portion of the abdomen, but it may occur anywhere from the upper left portion of the abdomen around to the back. Other signs and symptoms may include: †¢ Nausea Vomiting (if present, may be clear, green or yellow, blood-streaked, or completely bloody, depending on the severity of the stomach inflammation) †¢ Belching (if present, usually does not relieve the pain much) †¢ Bloating †¢ Early satiety Loss of appetite †¢ Unexplained weight loss Acute Erosive gastritis is a gastric mucosal erosion caused by damage to mucosal defenses. Alcohol consumption does not cause chronic gastritis. It does, however, erode the mu cosal lining of the stomach; low doses of alcohol stimulate hydrochloric acid secretion. High doses of alcohol do not stimulate secretion of acid. NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase-1, or COX-1, an enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of eicosanoids in the stomach, which increases the possibility of peptic ulcers forming.. Also, NSAIDs, such as aspirin, reduce a substance that protects the stomach called prostaglandin. These drugs used in a short period are not typically dangerous. However, regular use can lead to gastritis. Chronic Chronic gastritis refers to a wide range of problems of the gastric tissues. The immune system makes proteins and antibodies that fight infections in the body to maintain a homeostatic condition. In some disorders the body targets the stomach as if it were a foreign protein or pathogen; it makes antibodies against, severely damages, and may even destroy the stomach or its lining. In some cases bile, normally used to aid digestion in the small intestine, will enter through the pyloric valve of the stomach if it has been removed during surgery or does not work properly, also leading to gastritis. Gastritis may also be caused by other medical conditions, including HIV/AIDS, Crohn's disease, certain connective tissue disorders, and liver or kidney failure. [10] Diagnosis Often, a diagnosis can be made based on the patient's description of his or her symptoms, but other methods which may be used to verify gastritis include: †¢ Blood tests: †¢ Blood cell count †¢ Presence of H. pylori †¢ Pregnancy †¢ Liver, kidney, gallbladder, or pancreas functions †¢ Urinalysis †¢ Stool sample, to look for blood in the stool †¢ X-rays †¢ ECGs †¢ Endoscopy, to check for stomach lining inflammation and mucous erosion †¢ Stomach biopsy, to test for gastritis and other conditions Treatement Over-the-counter antacids in liquid or tablet form are a common treatment for mild gastritis. Antacids neutralize stomach acid and can provide fast pain relief. When antacids do not provide enough relief, medications such as cimetidine, ranitidine, nizatidine orfamotidine that help reduce the amount of acid the stomach produces are often prescribed. [15] An even more effective way to limit stomach acid production is to shut down the acid â€Å"pumps† within acid-secreting stomach cells. Proton pump inhibitors reduce acid by blocking the action of these small pumps. [15] This class of medications includes omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, andesomeprazole. Proton pump inhibitors also appear to inhibit H. pylori activity. Cytoprotective agents are designed to help protect the tissues that line the stomach and small intestine. They include the medications sucralfate and misoprostol. If NSAIDs are being taken regularly, one of these medications to protect the stomach may also be taken. Another cytoprotective agent is bismuth subsalicylate. Many people also drink milk to relieve symptoms, however the high calcium levels actually stimulate release of gastric acid from parietal cells, ultimately worsening symptoms. In addition to protecting the lining of stomach and intestines, bismuth preparations appear to inhibit H. pylori activity as well. Several regimens are used to treat H. pylori infection. Most use a combination of two antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Sometimes bismuth is also added to the regimen. The antibiotic aids in destroying the bacteria, and the acid blocker or proton pump inhibitor relieves pain and nausea, heals inflammation, and may increase the antibiotic's effectiveness.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Discussion 9-12 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion 9-12 - Assignment Example This minimizes the chances of ending up with a procedure that will guarantee the identification of a specific suspect in a lineup (Joycelyn and John). A probable cause hearing is in my opinion a crucial element in determining whether the requirements for probable cause have been attained in situations whereby a suspect has been arrested by an officer of the law, without an official warrant for the suspect’s arrest. I believe that this process is necessary in order to protect individuals from being arrested without sufficient evidence to suggest their involvement in criminal activities or arrests based purely on bad faith. Strictly speaking, vindictive prosecution arises when charges levied on an individual are motivated by vengeance. This situation is considered a violation of the Due Process Clause as outlined in the Fourteenth Amendment. The defense can overcome vindictive prosecution by pointing out the lack of sufficient evidence to incriminate the defendant, the unfair selection of members of the grand jury, variance during trial, and the prosecutor’s misconduct as an advisor to the grand

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Cross-cultural management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cross-cultural management - Assignment Example Others have also become economically successful after venturing into business activities. Most of the earlier Lebanese immigrants who came to Australia were Christians though this has changed in recent years with more Muslims immigrating to the country (Mansour, 2010). According to reports, the 2006 Australian census revealed that the number of Lebanese Australians living in the country stood at 125, 564 people. Out of this number, 52.5% of the population were comprised of males whereas the remaining 47.5% were comprised of females. These people are mostly found in the states of Victoria (20%) or New South Wales (75%) (Chapman, 2007). Results, Findings and Discussion There are various concepts that may help in understanding the relationships that exist within the Lebanese groups living within Australia. A few Lebanese Australians stick to the concepts of individualism which imply that they either act on their own or decide on their choices alone (Jamal & Chandab, 2005). According to previous reports, these Lebanese Australians also interact with other members of their community as though they were individuals (Mansour, 2010). On the other hand, the majority of the Lebanese Australians follow the notions of collectivism. They usually stand by the values and principles upheld by the groups they interact with and leave their individual values out of these groups (Aslan, 2009). The concepts of collectivism that are followed by most Lebanese immigrants have many disadvantages for this CALD (Culturally and linguistically diverse) community (Hage, 2002). These concepts do not allow a Lebanese individual to pursue his own desires and they also destroy the group’s ability of making proper ethical judgments. The issues of collectivism among the Lebanese have also been discouraged since they encourage vices like racism among their workers who may be working in culturally diverse organizations. This is mainly because they do not mix with people from other cultures a s they work (Mansour, 2010). The Lebanese Australians, following the concepts of collectivism, think as groups and do not have time to socialize and appreciate the diverse values and beliefs that other cultures have (Hage, 2002). This tendency may eventually reduce the productivity and efficiency of their workers thereby reducing a company’s profitability (Jamal & Chandab, 2005). In Australia, there are many linguistically and culturally diverse communities that work within their organizations. These communities have different values, attitudes and beliefs, which therefore implies that they have many differences among them (Mansour, 2010). The formation of groups by the Lebanese Australians prevents them from socializing with other communities and the lack of communication eventually tends to create animosities between these workers. This is mainly because none of them seems to understand or appreciate the differences that exist in their different cultures or backgrounds (Hag e, 2002). According to previous studies, most of the current crop of Lebanese Australians are very well educated and have professional jobs (Jamal and Chandab, 2005). However, there are other native communities that live within Australia and are not as well educated as they are. In order for the